Gemäß der lateinischen Bedeutung von experimentum, nämlich Versuch, Probe, Beweis, handelt es sich beim Experiment um eine. Das Experiment in der Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft. Grundlagen, Durchführung und Auswertung experimenteller Forschung. Autoren: Koch. Ein Experiment (von lateinisch experimentum „das in Erfahrung Gebrachte; Versuch, Beweis, Prüfung, Probe“, von experiri) im Sinne der Wissenschaft ist eine.
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In such an experiment, if all controls work as expected, it is possible to conclude that the experiment works as intended, and that results are due to the effect of the tested variables.
In the scientific method , an experiment is an empirical procedure that arbitrates competing models or hypotheses. An experiment usually tests a hypothesis , which is an expectation about how a particular process or phenomenon works.
However, an experiment may also aim to answer a "what-if" question, without a specific expectation about what the experiment reveals, or to confirm prior results.
If an experiment is carefully conducted, the results usually either support or disprove the hypothesis. According to some philosophies of science , an experiment can never "prove" a hypothesis, it can only add support.
On the other hand, an experiment that provides a counterexample can disprove a theory or hypothesis, but a theory can always be salvaged by appropriate ad hoc modifications at the expense of simplicity.
An experiment must also control the possible confounding factors —any factors that would mar the accuracy or repeatability of the experiment or the ability to interpret the results.
In engineering and the physical sciences, experiments are a primary component of the scientific method. They are used to test theories and hypotheses about how physical processes work under particular conditions e.
Typically, experiments in these fields focus on replication of identical procedures in hopes of producing identical results in each replication.
Random assignment is uncommon. In medicine and the social sciences , the prevalence of experimental research varies widely across disciplines.
When used, however, experiments typically follow the form of the clinical trial , where experimental units usually individual human beings are randomly assigned to a treatment or control condition where one or more outcomes are assessed.
There are various differences in experimental practice in each of the branches of science. For example, agricultural research frequently uses randomized experiments e.
One of the first methodical approaches to experiments in the modern sense is visible in the works of the Arab mathematician and scholar Ibn al-Haytham.
He conducted his experiments in the field of optics—going back to optical and mathematical problems in the works of Ptolemy —by controlling his experiments due to factors such as self-criticality, reliance on visible results of the experiments as well as a criticality in terms of earlier results.
He was one of the first scholars to use an inductive-experimental method for achieving results. We should distinguish the properties of particulars, and gather by induction what pertains to the eye when vision takes place and what is found in the manner of sensation to be uniform, unchanging, manifest and not subject to doubt.
After which we should ascend in our inquiry and reasonings, gradually and orderly, criticizing premisses and exercising caution in regard to conclusions—our aim in all that we make subject to inspection and review being to employ justice, not to follow prejudice, and to take care in all that we judge and criticize that we seek the truth and not to be swayed by opinion.
We may in this way eventually come to the truth that gratifies the heart and gradually and carefully reach the end at which certainty appears; while through criticism and caution we may seize the truth that dispels disagreement and resolves doubtful matters.
For all that, we are not free from that human turbidity which is in the nature of man; but we must do our best with what we possess of human power.
From God we derive support in all things. According to his explanation, a strictly controlled test execution with a sensibility for the subjectivity and susceptibility of outcomes due to the nature of man is necessary.
Furthermore, a critical view on the results and outcomes of earlier scholars is necessary:. He should also suspect himself as he performs his critical examination of it, so that he may avoid falling into either prejudice or leniency.
Thus, a comparison of earlier results with the experimental results is necessary for an objective experiment—the visible results being more important.
In this process of critical consideration, the man himself should not forget that he tends to subjective opinions—through "prejudices" and "leniency"—and thus has to be critical about his own way of building hypotheses.
Francis Bacon — , an English philosopher and scientist active in the 17th century, became an influential supporter of experimental science in the English renaissance.
He disagreed with the method of answering scientific questions by deduction —similar to Ibn al-Haytham —and described it as follows: "Having first determined the question according to his will, man then resorts to experience, and bending her to conformity with his placets, leads her about like a captive in a procession.
Notably, he first ordered the scientific method as we understand it today. There remains simple experience; which, if taken as it comes, is called accident, if sought for, experiment.
The true method of experience first lights the candle [hypothesis], and then by means of the candle shows the way [arranges and delimits the experiment]; commencing as it does with experience duly ordered and digested, not bungling or erratic, and from it deducing axioms [theories], and from established axioms again new experiments.
In the centuries that followed, people who applied the scientific method in different areas made important advances and discoveries. For example, Galileo Galilei — accurately measured time and experimented to make accurate measurements and conclusions about the speed of a falling body.
Antoine Lavoisier — , a French chemist, used experiment to describe new areas, such as combustion and biochemistry and to develop the theory of conservation of mass matter.
A considerable amount of progress on the design and analysis of experiments occurred in the early 20th century, with contributions from statisticians such as Ronald Fisher — , Jerzy Neyman — , Oscar Kempthorne — , Gertrude Mary Cox — , and William Gemmell Cochran — , among others.
Experiments might be categorized according to a number of dimensions, depending upon professional norms and standards in different fields of study.
In some disciplines e. The independent variable is manipulated by the experimenter, and the dependent variable is measured.
The signifying characteristic of a true experiment is that it randomly allocates the subjects to neutralize experimenter bias, and ensures, over a large number of iterations of the experiment, that it controls for all confounding factors.
A controlled experiment often compares the results obtained from experimental samples against control samples, which are practically identical to the experimental sample except for the one aspect whose effect is being tested the independent variable.
A good example would be a drug trial. The sample or group receiving the drug would be the experimental group treatment group ; and the one receiving the placebo or regular treatment would be the control one.
In many laboratory experiments it is good practice to have several replicate samples for the test being performed and have both a positive control and a negative control.
The results from replicate samples can often be averaged, or if one of the replicates is obviously inconsistent with the results from the other samples, it can be discarded as being the result of an experimental error some step of the test procedure may have been mistakenly omitted for that sample.
Most often, tests are done in duplicate or triplicate. A positive control is a procedure similar to the actual experimental test but is known from previous experience to give a positive result.
A negative control is known to give a negative result. The positive control confirms that the basic conditions of the experiment were able to produce a positive result, even if none of the actual experimental samples produce a positive result.
The negative control demonstrates the base-line result obtained when a test does not produce a measurable positive result. Most often the value of the negative control is treated as a "background" value to subtract from the test sample results.
Sometimes the positive control takes the quadrant of a standard curve. An example that is often used in teaching laboratories is a controlled protein assay.
Students might be given a fluid sample containing an unknown to the student amount of protein. It is their job to correctly perform a controlled experiment in which they determine the concentration of protein in the fluid sample usually called the "unknown sample".
The teaching lab would be equipped with a protein standard solution with a known protein concentration. Students could make several positive control samples containing various dilutions of the protein standard.
Negative control samples would contain all of the reagents for the protein assay but no protein. In this example, all samples are performed in duplicate.
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Synonyms for experiment Synonyms: Noun essay , experimentation , test , trial Visit the Thesaurus for More. Examples of experiment in a Sentence Noun Students will carry out simple laboratory experiments.
Recent Examples on the Web: Noun In a lab experiment , the EK mutation caused greater than tenfold drop of immunity in the antibodies of some COVID survivors.
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Example from the Hansard archive. Contains Parliamentary information licensed under the Open Parliament Licence v3. See all collocations with experiment.
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Browse our dictionary apps today and ensure you are never again lost for words. Sign up for free and get access to exclusive content:.Define experiment. experiment synonyms, experiment pronunciation, experiment translation, English dictionary definition of experiment. n. 1. a. A test under. experiment definition: 1. a test done in order to learn something or to discover if something works or is true: 2. to try. Learn more. Experiment definition is - test, trial. How to use experiment in a sentence. WHY NOT TRY A FUN SCIENCE EXPERIMENT RIGHT NOW? Here’s list of great science experiments with instructions that you can do right at home or at school. In order for your science experiment to be safe and successful, be sure to: Get your parent’s or teacher’s permission, and their help; Follow the directions as written. Another word for experiment. Find more ways to say experiment, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at aureliaherpinkiteschool.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus.